References, Notes and International Treaties


Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15


Notes on Sources

International Treaties


ABC Australian Broadcasting Corporation
CCP Chinese Communist Party
CINCFE Commander-in-Chief Far East
CINCUNC Commander-in-Chief United Nations Command
COS UK Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
CRO Commonwealth Relations Office
CMC Chinese Military Commission
DA Department of the Army
DIS Daily Intelligence Summary
FEC Far East Command
FO Foreign Office
FRUS Foreign Relations of the United States
HSTL Harry S. Truman Library
ICJ International Court of Justice
JCS US Joint Chiefs of Staff
NSC US National Security Council
PIR Periodic Intelligence Report
UKHC United Kingdom High Commission


Franklin D. Roosevelt Library & Museum, New York

Foreign Relations of United States, Office of the Historian

Harry S. Truman Library & Museum, Missouri

Imperial War Museum, London

Library of Congress, Washington

National Security Archive, George Washington University

Needham Research Institute, East Asian History of Science Library, Cambridge

National Archives, London

US Department of State Archives


xvi daily death rate for American servicemen ‘America’s Wars’, US Department of Veteran Affairs:, accessed 15/8/2017

xvi attempting to snuff out a small war Andrew Bacevich, Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War, Metropolitan Books, 2010, p. 108

xvi the most disgraceful Russell Spurr, Enter the Dragon: China’s Undeclared War Against the US in Korea 1950–1951, Newmarket Press, 1988, p. xxxii

xvi the most infamous Jonathan Pollack, ‘The Korean War and Sino-American Relations’ in Harry Harding and Yuan Ming (eds.), Sino-American Relations 1945–1955: A Joint Assessment of a Critical Decade, Delaware Scholarly Resources, 1989, p. 224

xvi one of the worst military disasters David McCullough, Truman, Simon & Schuster, 2010, p. 984

xvii rightful place among the nations Shu Guang Zhang, Mao’s Military Romanticism: China and the Korean War 1950–1953, University Press of Kansas, 1995, p. 252

xviii rebuffed communism in Asia Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, Simon & Schuster, 1994, p. 480

xviii strange new world…anyone, anywhere Geoffrey Wheatcroft, The New York Times, 10 February 2011:, accessed 15/8/2017

xviii How different world history Alistair Horne, Hubris: The Tragedy of War in the Twentieth Century, Hachette, 2015, p. xxix

CHAPTER 1 This Accursed Land

4 without comparison with that of Japan Ralph Cory, ‘Some Notes on Father Gregorio de Cespedes, Korea’s First European Visitor’, Royal Asiatic Society-Korea Branch, 1937, vol. 27, p. 44:, accessed 22/8/2017

4 Kingdom is very dangerous The Journal of Hendrick Hamel:, accessed 26/7/2017

5 a white stallion galloping Stewart Lone and Gavan McCormack, Korea: Since 1850, Longman Australia, 1994, p. ix

5 misty ages of the past James Scarth Gale, History of the Korean People, Seoul Computer Press, 1972, p. 93

7 untold amount of misery and suffering George Paik, The History of Protestant Missions in Korea 1832–1910, Yonsei University Press, 1970, p. 18

CHAPTER 2 Missionaries and Gunboats

9 stifling all feelings Paik, p. 35

10 as pilots of the gunboat Paik, p. 43

10 reputedly 8000 Bruce Cumings, Korea’s Place in the Sun: A Modern History, W.W. Norton & Company, 1997, p. 96

10 twenty-four heads in one fell swoop Marguerite Harrison, Asia Reborn, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1918, p. 354

11 yet it was a terrible year Gale, p. 309

11 illegally and clandestinely exhuming…perfect burlesque Wilson Strand, ‘Satanic Devils in the Hermit Kingdom’, Royal Asiatic Society-Korea Branch, 2002, vol. 77, p. 152:, accessed 22/8/2017

12 Little War with the Heathen The New York Herald, 24 July 1871:, accessed 22/8/2017; Cumings (1977), p. 97

13 the last of the exclusive countries Frederick Drake, The Empire of the Seas: A Biography of Rear Admiral Robert Wilson Shufeldt, USN, University of Hawaii Press, 1984, p. 298

15 annex ten Korean acres Cumings (1997), p. 114

17 approval of the Japanese cabinet Michael Finch, Min Yong-hwan: A Political Biography, University of Hawaii Press, 2002, p. 74

17 crouched, pale and trembling George Lensen, Balance of Intrigue: International Rivalry in Korea & Manchuria 1884–1899, University Press Florida, 1982, vol. 1, pp. 583–84

18 the British government would maintain Finch, p. 152

19 monopolistic privilege over the peninsula Djun Kil Kim, The History of Korea, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005, p. 119

20 sacrificing his body Finch, p. 173

21 over 7000 dead, almost 16,000 wounded CNN, 28 February 2011:, accessed 3/4/2017

CHAPTER 3 A Fateful Division

26 no member of SWNCC had any idea Dean Rusk, As I Saw It, W.W. Norton, 1990, pp. 123–24

26 Operation August Storm David Glantz, ‘August Storm: Soviet Tactical and Operational Combat in Manchuria 1945’, Combat Studies Institute, June 1983:, accessed 4/4/2017

26 raised it with Stalin FRUS, 1945, 6:1098 (1945)

27 suddenly became of interest Sheila Miyoshi Jager, Brothers at War: The Unending Conflict in Korea, W.W. Norton & Company, 2013, p. 18

27 would want all of Manchuria, Korea The Entry of the Soviet Union into the War against Japan: Military Plans, 1941–45, p. 51:;view=1up;seq=61, accessed 8/8/2017

27 Russians to deal with the Japs FRUS, 1945, 1:905 (18 June 1945)

28 Truman anxious to have Korea occupied promptly Robert Donovan, Tumultuous Years: The Presidency of Harry S. Truman 1949–1953, University of Missouri Press, 1982, p. 90

28 higher than that trodden by the crowd Cardozo J., Meinhard v Salmon 249 N.Y. 458 (1928) at 464

28 astonishing in its origin Gregory Henderson, Richard Lebow and John Stoessinger, Divided Nations in a Divided World, David McKay Company, 1974, p. 43

29 toward the Military Government FRUS, 1947, 6:611 (25 February 1947)

30 as an enemy of the United States Max Hastings, The Korean War, Pan Books, 1988, p. 17

30 puppet show Jager, p. 31

30 Our misunderstanding of local feelings Interview with Lieutenant Ferris Miller, USN, 12 October 1985 in Hastings, p. 19

31 common reference point of opposition Anthony FarrarHockley, The British Part in the Korean War: A Distant Obligation, HMSO Publications, 1990, vol. 1, p. 6

32 American propensity Hastings, p. 23

32 preference for charismatic individuals Michael Burleigh, Small Wars, Faraway Places: The Genesis of the Modern World 1945–1965, Pan Books, 2014, p. 21

32 every eccentric schemer Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War: Liberation and the Emergence of Separate Regimes 1945–1947, Princeton University Press, 1981, vol. 1, p. 188

32 haunted and irritated Foggy Bottom Bruce Cumings, The Korean War: A History, Modern Library, 2011, p. 106

32 essentially [a] demagogue ‘Prospects for Survival of the Republic of Korea’, CIA, 1948, p. 9:, accessed 8/8/2017; also Cumings (1997), p. 215

33 conspired against established State Department policy Cumings, (1981) p. 189

33 a measure of corruption Hastings, p. 23

34 Real Power is apparently in the hands Australian Mission in Japan, Departmental Despatch no. 29, 11 November 1947; Lone and McCormack, p. 101

34 dangerous fascist, or lunatic Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947–1950, Princeton University Press, 1990, vol. 2, p. 227

35 willing tools of a tyranny Hastings, p. 32

35 The defeat of Russian troops Radio Address of Stalin, 6 September 1945:, accessed 29/6/2017

36 the translators…powerful ambassadors Lim Un (pseud.), The Founding of a Dynasty in North Korea: An Authentic Biography of Kim Il-sung, Jiyu-sha, 1982, p. 144

36 A more reliable estimate Farrar-Hockley, p. 20

37 core institutions of the pro-Soviet regime Jager, p. 22

37 give instructions to the troops Jager, p. 20

37 shoot on sight Cumings (1981), p. 389

37 placed enormous emphasis Jager, p. 25

39 almost every adult northern Korean Allan Millett, ‘The Korean People: Missing in Action in the Misunderstood War, 19451954’ in William Stueck (ed.), The Korean War in World History, The University Press of Kentucky, 2004, p. 30

CHAPTER 4 Two States Emerge

41 keen, ruthless and incisive Farrar-Hockley, p. 9

41 I am unable to fit trusteeship FRUS, 1945, 6:1130 (20 November 1945)

41 stepped out of bounds of his authority…independence they wanted Jager, p. 42

42 policemen and their rightist allies Jager, p. 44

43 attainment of the national independence, United Nations, General Assembly Resolution, 14 November 1947, p. 17:, accessed 26/6/2017

44 be confined to Southern Korea Letter Truman to Mackenzie King, 5 January 1948 in Farrar-Hockley, pp. 16–17

44 tenacious of independence Kumara Menon, Many Worlds: An Autobiography, Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 254

44 formation of a separate government…as national Kumara Menon, Report to the Interim Committee of the General Assembly; Bong-youn Choy, A History of the Korean Reunification Movement: its issues and prospects, Research Committee on Korean Reunification, Institute of International Studies, 1984, p. 52

45 introduced a resolution Menon, p. 257

45 such parts of Korea as are accessible Direction dated 26 February 1948 from the Interim Committee to the Commission; Martin Hart-Landsberg, Korea: Division, Reunification, and US Foreign Policy, Monthly Review Press, 1998, p. 86; Lone and McCormack, p. 102

45 sustained United States pressure Australian Delegation, United Nations, to Department External Affairs, 24 February 1948:, accessed 26/6/2017; Lone and McCormack, p. 101

46 general appeasement of Soviet Russia FRUS, 1948, 6:1126 (22 February 1948)

46 a majority of the public Choy, p. 56; Hart-Landsberg, p. 86

46 Their joint declaration Andrei Lankov, From Stalin to Kim Il-sung: The Formation of North Korea 1945–1960, Hurst & Company, 2002, pp. 4546

47 bricks in the wall Hastings, p. 35

47 officially sponsored violence Lone and McCormack, p. 102

47 Rhee’s police goons Burleigh, p. 73

47 far from satisfied FRUS, 1948, 6:1215 (4 June 1948)

47 a valid expression of the free will FRUS, 1949, 7:2:971 (22 March 1949)

47 the government as now constituted Telegrams Canberra to Tokyo, 3 and 4 August 1948; Lone and McCormack, p. 102

47 the difficulty of blessing Letter from HM Consul-General, Seoul, to FO, 20 July 1948; Farrar-Hockley, p. 21

48 both foolish and improper FO Minute, Japan and Pacific Department to United Nations, Political and Legal Adviser, 28 June 1948; Farrar-Hockley, p. 21

48 pettifogging obstruction Seoul to FO, 26 July 1948; Farrar-Hockley, p. 22

48 having effective control United Nations, General Assembly Resolution, 12 December 1948, p. 25:, accessed 26/6/2017

48 a cohesive, peaceful Jager, p. 51

48 an apparent similarity Cumings (1997), p. 226

49 now recognised as such for the British legal position see re Al-Fin Corporation’s Patent [1970] Ch 160 at 180

50 moment of major battles…stoppage of American aid Cumings (1997), pp. 24852

CHAPTER 5 Power Play

55 Russian Foreign Ministry report Soviet Foreign Ministry Report on the Question of a United Government in Korea, 10 December 1945, Wilson Center:, accessed 27/6/2017; Kathryn Weathersby, ‘Soviet Aims in Korea and the Origins of the Korean War 19451950: New Evidence from Russian Archives’, Working Paper No. 8, Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center, 1993, p. 11

55-6 The ideals of the United States Weathersby (1993), p. 16

56 broken by our side…will be understood Conversation between Stalin and Kim Il-sung, 7 March 1949; Kathryn Weathersby, ‘Should We Fear This? Stalin and the Danger of War with America’, Working Paper No. 39, Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center, 2002, p. 4

57 to give freedom of action Telegram from Stalin to Shtykov, 17 April 1949; Weathersby (2002), p. 4

57 induce the adversary to launch Telegram from Stalin to Shtykov, 30 October 1949; Weathersby (2002), p. 8

57 no less than forty-eight telegrams Selig Harrison, Korean Endgame: A Strategy for Reunification and US Disengagement, Princeton University Press, 2002, p. xiv

57 elite attack divisions Report on Kim Il-sung’s visit to the USSR, 30 March25 April 1950; Weathersby (2002), p. 10

58 China is no longer busy Report on Kim Il-sung’s visit to the USSR, 30 March25 April 1950; Weathersby (2002), p. 9

58 If you should get kicked in the teeth Jager, p. 62; Weathersby (2002), pp. 11–12

58 If we let Korea down Meeting in the President’s Office, 27 June 1950, HSTL:, accessed 7/8/2017; Lloyd Gardner (ed.), The Korean War, The New York Times Company, 1972, p. 7

58 All the prior policies Clay Blair, The Forgotten War: America in Korea 1950–1953, Times Books, 1987, p. 72

59 earth-shattering significance Andrew Bacevich, The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism, Black Inc., 2008, p. 111

59 We overreacted to Stalin Robert Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 243

59 half of the country had been destroyed Kennan on the Cold War: An Interview on CNN, May and June 1996:, accessed 28/4/2017

59 better form of organisation of society Robert Dallek, The Lost Peace: Leadership in a Time of Horror and Hope 1945–1953, Harper, 2010, p. 183

59 virtues of the Soviet system Dallek, p. 185

60 already a mighty power Dallek, p. 184

60 no position to fight a new war Kennan on the Cold War: An Interview on CNN, May and June 1996:, accessed 28/4/2017

60 did not intend to conquer Sir Richard Evans, ABC Radio National, 24 July 2015:, accessed 28/4/2017

60 Kremlin’s neurotic view Telegram from George Kennan to George Marshall (‘Long Telegram’), 22 February 1946, HSTL:, accessed 27/6/2017

60 fears, paranoia and isolation David Halberstam, The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War, Pan Books, 2007, p. 197

60 effort to achieve without war Henry Lieberman, The New York Times, 1 January 1950:, accessed 29/6/2017

60 delayed declaration of war Dallek, p. 185

61 committed fanatically to the belief Telegram from George Kennan to George Marshall (‘Long Telegram’), 22 February 1946, HSTL:, accessed 27/6/2017

61 adroit and vigilant application ‘X’ George Kennan,The Sources of Soviet Conduct’, Foreign Affairs, July 1947:, accessed 27/6/2017

61 My thoughts about containment Kennan on the Cold War: An Interview on CNN, May and June 1996:, accessed 28/4/2017

61 absurd to suppose Kennan on the Cold War: An Interview on CNN, May and June 1996:, accessed 28/4/2017

61 serious and inexcusable error Kennan on the Cold War: An Interview on CNN, May and June 1996:, accessed 28/4/2017

61 Stalin saw anti-capitalist talk Dallek, p. 186

62 several thousand armed men Address of the President to Congress: Recommending Assistance to Greece and Turkey, 12 March 1947, HSTL:, accessed 27/6/2017

62 apocalyptic…grandiose and sweeping Dallek, p. 232

62 trying to take over the world Robert Blum, Drawing the Line: The Origin of the American Containment Policy in East Asia, Norton, 1982, p. 13; Rosemary Foot, The Wrong War: American Policy and the Dimensions of the Korean Conflict 1950–1953, Cornell University Press, 1985, p. 32

63 establishment of imperial control by Moscow Dean Acheson, Letter of Transmittal, 30 July 1950:,%20Lyman%20-%20The%20China%20White%20Paper%201949_djvu.txt, accessed 30/6/2017; Dallek, p. 286

63 work of advocacy John Gaddis and Paul Nitze, ‘NSC 68 and the Soviet Threat Reconsidered’, International Security, Spring 1980, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 168; Wilson Miscamble, George F. Kennan and the Makings of American Foreign Policy 1947–1950, Princeton University Press, 1992, p. 309

63 NSC 68 A Report to the National Security Council, 14 April 1950, HSTL:, accessed 28/4/2017

63 inflated Moscow’s capabilities Beisner, p. 243

63 bludgeon the mass mind Beisner, p. 238

63 dramatization and magnification Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department, Norton, 1969, pp. 37475

64 militarise American foreign policy Halberstam, p. 194

64 worst advised military commander…supply officer Halberstam, p. 235; Douglas Macdonald, Adventures in Chaos: American Intervention for Reform in the Third World, Harvard University Press, 1992, p. 110

66 God, the man is great Time magazine, 10 July 1950; Halberstam, p. 104

66 something like a war Halberstam, p. 240; Jeff Blackwell, ‘The China Lobby: Influences on US-China Foreign Policy in the Post-War Period 19491954’, The Forum: Journal of History, vol. 2, iss. 1, art. 9:, accessed 21/8/2017

66 Part of him wanted Halberstam, p. 243

66 remove her as a further threat Douglas MacArthur, Reminiscences: General of the Army, McGraw-Hill, 1964, p. 378

66 I pray nightly that they will Matthew Ridgway, The Korean War, Doubleday, 1967, p. 38; Foot (1985), p. 85

66 The epitaph for America’s China policy Simei Qing, From Allies to Enemies: Visions of Modernity, Identity, and US-China Diplomacy 1945–1960, Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 141

66 deep bitterness and frustration Hastings, p. 40

67 US would militarily intervene Shu Guang Zhang, Mao’s Military Romanticism: China and the Korean War 1950–1953, University Press of Kansas, 1995, p. 54

67 justifiably complained that Zhang, p. 33

68 continue to support Qing, p. 62

68 Marshall was appalled Qing, p. 83

68 our national defence will be consolidated Mao Zedong, Speech at the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, 21 September 1949:, accessed 28/6/2017; Zhang, p. 51

68 a nation subject to insult and humiliation Mao Zedong, Speech at the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, 21 September 1949:, accessed 28/6/2017

68 spectrum of ideologies…stand up to imperialism Qing, p. 32

68 ally with an enemy’s enemy Zhang, p. 38

68 unusual grace Zhang, p. 39

69 abiding hatred of the Soviet Union Adam Ulam, Stalin: The Man and his Era, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2007, p. 695; Chen Jian, China’s Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation, Columbia University Press, 1994, p. 204

69 If the Chinese comrades do not agree Cable from Vyshinsky to Mao Zedong, Relaying Stalin’s Stance on Permission for North Korea to attack South Korea, 14 May 1950, Wilson Center:, accessed 29/6/2017; Qing, p. 152

69 manoeuvred Mao into a position William Stueck, Rethinking the Korean War: A New Diplomatic and Strategic History, Princeton University Press, 2002, p. 103

69 if Americans take part in combat activities Telegram from Roschchin to Stalin, 16 May 1950; Weathersby (2002), pp. 12–13

70 China might deploy Qing, p. 153

71 China’s bedrock national interest Harrison, p. 310

CHAPTER 6 American Hubris

72 withdraw their armed forces to the 38th parallel United Nations, Security Council Resolution 82, 25 June 1950, p. 4:, accessed 29/6/2017

72 repel the armed attack United Nations, Security Council Resolution 83, 27 June 1950, p. 5:, accessed 29/6/2017

72 obliterated the 38th parallel FRUS, 1950, 7:373 (13 July 1950)

73 back across the line FRUS, 1950, 7:373 (13 July 1950)

73 all legal and moral right FRUS, 1950, 7:461 (24 July 1950)

73 emotional moralistic attitudes FRUS, 1950, 7:624 (21 August 1950)

74 rules made for lesser men Hastings, p. 62

74 ensure the people of Korea an opportunity Special Message to the Congress Reporting on the Situation in Korea, 19 July 1950, HSTL:, accessed 12/5/2017

74 march up to a surveyor’s line Acheson, p. 451

75 free, independent and united Radio and Television Report to the American People on the situation in Korea, 1 September 1950, HSTL:, accessed 30/6/2017

75 secret recommendation (NSC 81/1) NSC 81: United States Courses of Action With Respect to Korea, 1 September 1950, HSTL:, accessed 30/6/2017

75 destroy the North Korean forces FRUS, 1950, 7:793 (27 September 1950)

75 major Soviet or Chinese communist forces FRUS, 1950, 7:781 (26 September 1950)

76 they will become aggressors Commonwealth of Australia, Parliamentary Debates, 27 September 1950, no. 19, p. 3:;fileType=application%2Fpdf, accessed 30/6/2017; Robert O’Neill, Australia in the Korean War 1950–53: Strategy and Diplomacy, The Australian War Memorial and the Australian Government Publishing Service, 1981, vol. 1, p. 123

76 For his eyes only…unhampered tactically and strategically…militarily necessary to do so FRUS, 1950, 7:826 (29 September 1950); Farrar-Hockley, p. 209

76 let action determine the matter JCS to CINCFE, 1 October 1950; Joseph Goulden, Korea: The Untold Story of the War, Times Books, 1982, p. 239

76 decided to avoid the issue Goulden, p. 238

76 I regard all of Korea open CINCFE to DA for JCS, 1 October 1950; Goulden, p. 239

76 a fait accompli dictated by MacArthur UKHC India to CRO, 3 October 1950; Farrar-Hockley, p. 216

77 long running international minuet Farrar-Hockley, p. 221

77 Have any instructions been issued FO cable to Washington, 3 October 1950; Farrar-Hockley, p. 220

77 immediately unleash his air force FO, 3 October 1950; Foot (1985), p. 85

77 situation was somewhat confused COS 162nd Meeting, 5 October 1950; Farrar-Hockley, p. 224

77 questioned the wisdom of a crossing Memorandum Air Marshal Lord Tedder to General Omar Bradley, 5 October 1950; Goulden, p. 243

78 all appropriate steps be taken FRUS, 1950, 7:904 (7 October 1950)

78 wondrously loose Goulden, p. 243

78 ambiguous to an absurd degree Blair, p. 328

79 appears to be in such wide terms O’Neill (1981), p. 120

79 General MacArthur at once stripped Acheson, p. 455

79 the state of the world guaranteed Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance, Penguin Group, 2004, p. 29

79 instrument of ideological propaganda Paul Johnson, Modern Times: A History of the World from the 1920s to the 1990s, Phoenix Giant, 1996, p. 450

80 transformed the nature of the Korean war O’Neill (1981), p. 126

80 action by forces under your control offers a reasonable chance of success FRUS, 1950, 7:915 (9 October 1950)

80 in order not to bring into question FRUS, 1950, 7:893 (6 October 1950); Farrar-Hockley, p. 225

80 despite his press conference assurances William Manchester, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 1880–1964, Hutchinson Group Australia, 1978, p. 585

80 the one most critical decision Walter Millis, Arms and the State: Civil Military Elements in National Policy, Twentieth Century Fund, University of Michigan, 1958, p. 278; Manchester, p. 585

80–1 The wisdom and morality O’Neill (1981), p. 117

81 a bold, even arrogant man Stueck (2002), p. 115

81 well-blazed Japanese invasion routes Beisner, p. 415

81 barely a working state Beisner, p. 415

81 arrogance, condescension and naiveté Stueck (2002), p. 101

81 China will always stand James Schnabel, Policy and Direction: The First Year, Center of Military History, United States Army, 1992, p. 197

82 American army on her Manchurian flank UKHC India to CRO, 27 September 1950; Farrar-Hockley, p. 211

82 any decision or even suggestion UKHC India to CRO, 27 September 1950; Farrar-Hockley, p. 211

82 absolutely will not tolerate foreign aggression Allen Whiting, China Crosses the Yalu, The Macmillan Company, 1960, p. 108

82 The US troops are going to cross FRUS, 1950, 7:839 (3 October 1950)

82 So America has knowingly elected for war Kavalam Madhava Panikkar, In Two Chinas: Memoirs of a Diplomat, Allen & Unwin, 1955, p. 111

83 the mere vaporings of a panicky Panikkar Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1986, p. 533; Halberstam, p. 337

83 an emergence of war mania Zhang, p. 56

84 any change of battleground Chai Chengwen, Banmendian Tanpan: The Panmunjom Negotiations, PLA Press, Beijing, 1989, pp. 3940; Zhang, p. 71

84 politically justified but also militarily advantageous Telegram Deng Hua to the CMC, 31 August 1950; Zhang, p. 76

84 know yourself and know your enemy Sun Tzu (translated by Jonathan Clements), The Art of War, Constable, 2012, p. 54

84 notes of the meeting Minutes of the 13th Army Corps Command Meeting, 13 August 1950; Zhang, p. 76

85 penetration, circling and disintegration Zhang, p. 77

85 We have decided to send troops Donggil Kim, ‘China’s Intervention in the Korean War Revisited’, Diplomatic History, 2016, vol. 40, iss. 5, p. 9

86 wait there year after year Zhang, p. 81

86 If its troops are poised Appu Soman, Double-Edged Sword: Nuclear Diplomacy in Unequal Conflicts: The United States and China 1950–1958, Praeger, 2000, p. 69

86 China formally decided to enter the war Mao Zedong, Order to the Chinese People’s Volunteers, 8 October 1950:, accessed 3/7/2017; Sergei Goncharov, John Lewis and Xue Litai, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War, Stanford University Press, 1993, p. 184

86 cabled Kim Il-sung Telegram Mao to Kim Il-sung, 8 October 1950; Zhang, p. 82

86 not yet ready to assist Xiong Huayuan, ‘Zhou Enlai’s Secret Visit to the Soviet Union Right Before China’s Entry in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea,’ Dang de Wenxian, 1994, vol. 3, pp. 8386; Zhang, p. 83; Jian, pp. 198200

87 decision on the 13th Army Group’s entry Telegram Mao to Peng Dehuai, 12 October 1950; Zhang, p. 83

87 we won’t be afraid Telegram Mao to Zhou Enlai, 13 October 1950; Zhang, p. 84; Jian, pp. 20223

87 buried his head in his hands Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story, Jonathan Cape, 2005, p. 379

87 deeply moved Zhang, p. 84; Goncharov, Lewis and Litai, p. 195

87 relented somewhat Goncharov, Lewis and Litai, p. 195; Jian, p. 208

CHAPTER 7 China Crosses the Yalu

88 averaged nearly 24 miles a day Roy Appleman, United States Army in the Korean War: South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu, Centre for Military History Publications, 1992, p. 750

90 shot down one of the Mustangs Robert O’Neill, Australia in the Korean War 1950–53: Combat Operations, The Australian War Memorial and the Australian Government Publishing Service, 1985, vol. 2, p. 318

90 concentrated in force in Manchuria Appleman (1992), p. 751

90 the gate of hell Halberstam, p. 363

91 They were an army of ghosts Andrew Salmon, Scorched Earth, Black Snow: Britain and Australia in the Korean War 1950, Aurum Press, 2011, p. 242

92 best examples of antiquity Appleman (1992), p. 770

92 success of this simple discipline Farrar-Hockley, p. 275

92 check the enemy’s offensive David Tsui, China’s Military Intervention in Korea: Its Origins and Objectives, Trafford Publishing, 2015, p. 161

93 Mao telegraphed Peng Tsui, p. 162

94 seated astride a massive cowboy saddle Hastings, p. 147

95 strangest sight I have ever seen Appleman (1992), p. 690

96 almost like a track meet Halberstam, p. 26

98 There was just mass hysteria Hastings, p. 150

99 Primary Conclusions of Battle Experience Appleman (1992), p. 720

100 would be the greatest slaughter Memorandum, Substance of Statements Made at Wake Island Conference, 15 October 1950, HSTL:, accessed 4/7/2017

100 failed to put out adequate security Appleman (1992), p. 764

101 simpering and reverential Halberstam, p. 373

101 an insular organisation Oral History Interview with Paul Nitze, 17 June 1975, HSTL:, accessed 4/7/2017

101 dream-world of self-worship Stueck (2002), p. 113

101 Army chief of staff in Washington estimated H. A. DeWeerd, Strategic Surprise in the Korean War, The Rand Corporation, June 1962, p. 22:, accessed 4/7/2017

102 all ideology and almost never any facts Frank Wisner, Head of CIA’s Directorate of Plans in Halberstam, p. 374

102 certitude after certitude Halberstam, p. 379

102 pulled along by the power of the command above Halberstam, p. 382

102 the saddest thing Halberstam, p. 382

102 The conduct of the drive to the Yalu Hastings, p. 153

103 We cannot sit idly by FRUS, 1950, 7:852 (2 October 1950); Goncharov, Lewis and Litai, p. 179

103 if US forces crossed the 38th parallel FEC DIS, 7 October 1950; Appleman (1992), p. 759

103 total of 24 divisions are disposed Appleman (1992), p. 759

103 415,000 were Chinese communist Appleman (1992), p. 762

103 unconfirmed and thereby unaccepted FEC DIS, 9 November 1950; Goulden, p. 287

104 thousands of Chinese in the area Halberstam, p. 18

104 when General Paik looked Goulden, p. 289; Appleman (1992), p. 677

104 incorporated into North Korean units Goulden, p. 288

105 integral CCF units have been committed X Corps PIR, 30 October 1950; Appleman (1992), p. 755

105 indications so far Schnabel (1992), p. 240; Goulden, p. 297

105 one of the most glaring failures Justin Haynes, Intelligence Failure in Korea: Major General Charles A. Willoughby’s Role in the United Nations Command’s Defeat in November 1950, Pickle Partners Publishing, 2015, p. 10

105 Part of the reason Oral History Interview with Paul H. Nitze, 5 August 1975, HSTL:, accessed 16/8/2017

CHAPTER 8 American Calamity

107 all but destroyed Roy Appleman, Disaster in Korea: The Chinese Confront MacArthur, Texas A&M University Press, 1989, p. 3

107 cut to pieces Appleman (1989), p. 3

107 MacArthur’s wildly inaccurate estimate Appleman (1989), p. 27

107 most successful mass infiltration Salmon, p. 246

107 showdown with Communism O’Neill (1981), p. 136

107 dreams of the conquest of Asia Reginald Thompson, Cry Korea, White Lion Publishers, 1974, p. 87

107 Genghis Khan in reverse Thompson, p. 87

108 installation, factory, city and village Robert Futrell, The United States Air Force In Korea: 1950–1953, Office of Air Force History, 1983, p. 221; Blair, pp. 392–93

108 a phantom which cast no shadow S.L.A. Marshall, The River and the Gauntlet: Defeat of the Eighth Army by the Chinese Communist Forces, November 1950, in the Battle of the Chongchon River, Korea, Greenwood Press, 1970, p. 1

108 nine back to support one forward Thompson, p. 147

108 needed almost thirty kilograms Hastings, p. 162

108 only fifty tons of supplies per day Hastings, p. 162

108 bag of millet meal Thompson, p. 147

109 seventeen transport aircraft Appleman (1989), p. 37

109 turkey, cranberry sauce Jager, p. 129; The New York Times, 21 November 1950:, accessed 5/7/2017

109 the stricken refugees Thompson, p. 231

109 a full turkey dinner Antony Beevor, Ardennes 1944, Penguin Books, 2015, p. 78

110 There are some indications FEC DIS, 25 November 1950; Appleman (1989), p. 41

110 alarm and despondency Thompson, p. 236

110 home for Christmas Thompson, p. 235

110 end of war offensive CINCUNC communiqué 12, 24 November 1950; Thompson, p. 236

112 Every man for himself! Hastings, p. 165

112 disorder, ineptness, breakdown Appleman (1989), p. 161

112 only a few hundred yards Goulden, p. 338

112 general withdrawal was being openly discussed Major General Basil Coad, Report on the Operations of the 27th British Infantry Brigade between 29 August 1950 and 31 March 1951, Imperial War Museum, London

113 licked their wounds Thompson, p. 259

114 death ride Hastings, p. 168

114 every small arms weapon Appleman (1989), p. 296

115 most hideous ordeal Salmon, p. 294

115 Over 4,000 men Appleman (1989), p. 337

115 every one of their pieces Appleman (1989), p. 336

115 six weeks later Appleman (1989), p. 450; Col. Emerson C. Itschner, ‘Engineers in Operation BUG-OUT’, The Military Engineer, 43:294 (July–August 1951), p. 255

116 American lack of determination…handicap to battle Lt. Gen. Sir Robert Mansergh in Hastings, p. 207

116 not a single vehicle, artillery piece Roy Appleman, East of Chosin: Entrapment and Breakout in Korea 1950, Texas A&M University Press, 1987, p. 300

116 no other story of the Korean War Appleman (1987), p. 3

117 scared of being shot Appleman (1987), p. 69

117 an entirely new war Goulden, p. 406; Appleman (1987), p. 169; The New York Times, 29 November 1950:, accessed 5/7/2017

119 begged me to shoot them Donald Knox and Alfred Coppel, The Korean War: Pusan to Chosin: An Oral History, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985, vol. 1, p. 552; Robert Neer, Napalm: An American Biography, Harvard University Press, 2013, p. 101

119 thud of impacting rounds Appleman (1987), p. 241

119 huddled and crouched around the trucks Appleman (1987), p. 237

119 reluctance, the surly unwillingness Appleman (1987), p. 316

119 the wounded screaming in anguish Appleman (1987), p. 228

119 shot them dead Interview with Capt. Edward Stamford, 28 and 29 October 1980 in Appleman (1987), p. 240

120 everyone for himself Thomas Ricks, The Generals: American Military Command from World War II to Today, The Penguin Press, 2012, p. 146

120 seemed like the world gone mad Ricks, p. 147

120 no resistance left in the column Appleman (1987), p. 322

120 disorganised mob, hysterical with fright Appleman (1987), p. 288

120 nearly all the officers Appleman (1987), p. 315

121 I believe a winter campaign Letter Major General Oliver Smith to Marine Commandant General Cates, November 1950 in Halberstam, p. 434

122 1500 of them in all Goulden, p. 367

122 dazed air of men Marguerite Higgins, War in Korea: The Report of a Woman Combat Correspondent, Doubleday, 1951, p. 182

122 10,000 troops and more Goulden, p. 372

122 worst ordeal in Marine history Goulden, p. 378

CHAPTER 9 Indignation & Attrition

127 few buildings [will be] left Combat Bulletin No. 106: U.N. Forces Consolidate Below 38th Parallel, 20 December 1950–20 January 1951:, accessed 6/7/2017

127 razing of villages Harrison, 2002, p. 9

127 a nation put to the torch Salmon, p. 309

128 burned a rations dump Knox and Coppel, p. 659; Jager, p. 145

128 blackened monuments of barbarism Rebecca Felton, Country Life in Georgia: In the Days of My Youth, University of North Carolina, p. 228:, accessed 25/5/2017

128 100 tons of British ammunition Appleman (1989), p. 385

129 a terrible sense of shame Halberstam, p. 485

129 soldiers are soldiers Salmon, p. 403

129 man with a violin Richard Goldstein, The New York Times, 20 October 2001:, accessed 23/5/2017

129 most spectacular, most terrible Salmon, p. 405

130 cost the price of a Cadillac Anthony Sobieski, Fire For Effect! Artillery Forward Observers in Korea, Author House, 2005, p. 32

130 unquestionably a major failure Letter from George Kennan to Dean Acheson, 4 December 1950, HSTL:, accessed 25/5/2017

130 fight the Chinese to a standstill Acheson, pp. 476–77

130 stay and fight as long as possible George Kennan, Memoirs: 19501963, Hutchinson, 1972, vol. 2, p. 33; Beisner, p. 418

130 Proclamation of National Emergency Harry S. Truman, Proclamation 2914–Proclaiming the Existence of a National Emergency, 16 December 1950:, accessed 6/7/2017

131 power, position and prestige Dean Acheson, ‘Remarks before the American Society of International Law’, 25 April 1963, 57 American Society of International Law Proceedings, 1963, p. 14

131 most nations shared the British view Goulden, p. 421

131 less important than restraint of the United States Richard Stebbins, The United States in World Affairs 1950, Harper & Row, 1951, p. 415

132 list of retardation targets Foot (1985), p. 114

132 attack on a platoon of United States troops FRUS, 1950, 7:1330 (3 December 1950)

132 repay the Chinese for their deeds FRUS, 1950, 7:1335 (3 December 1950)

132 security of the United States Memorandum for the President, 18 January 1951; Foot (1985), p. 120

132 could try to void China FRUS, 1950, 7:1327 (3 December 1950)

132 using Taiwan as a base FRUS, 1950, 6:163 (30 November 1950)

133 fighting the second team FRUS, 1950, 7:1326 (3 December 1950)

133 retained considerable appeal Richard Stebbins, The United States in World Affairs 1951, Harper & Row, 1952, pp. 8586

133 a supreme effort FRUS, 1951, 4:1:910

133 Every command post I visited Ridgway, pp. 8687

133 toughening of the soul Goulden, p. 438

134 time was right for talking Foot (1985), p. 170

134 Some day I hope to meet you Letter from Harry S. Truman to Paul Hume, 6 December 1950, HSTL:, accessed 6/7/2017

134 despite initial opposition Rosemary Foot, ‘Anglo-American Relations in the Korean Crisis: The British Effort to Avert an Expanded War, December 1950–January 1951’, in Diplomatic History, Winter 1986, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 53

135 UN failure to recognise China as an aggressor FRUS, 1951, 7:1:2728 (1951)

135 derailed by an unauthorised FRUS, 1951, 7:26566 (24 March 1951); Foot (1985), p. 134

135 save Asia from the engulfment FRUS, 1950, 7:1631 (30 December 1950)

135 into every community Gardner (1972), p. 22

136 no publicity be given FRUS, 1951, 7:1:730 (25 July 1951)

136 strong efforts to deflate FRUS, 1951, 6:1:36 (17 May 1951)

136 baser concern with showing Asia Foot (1985), p. 243

136–37 get peace or hit harder FRUS, 1951, 7:448 (23 May 1951)

137 favoured bombing Manchuria FRUS, 1951, 1:90 (5 June 1951)

137 all the help they needed to attack Foot (1985), p. 156

137 Taiwan would never be allowed FRUS, 1951, 7:448 (23 May 1951)

137 A colonial Russian government Dean Rusk, ‘Chinese-American Friendship’, Department of State Bulletin, 28 May 1951, p. 847:;view=1up;seq=332;size=125, accessed 6/7/2017

137 Even Truman was troubled FRUS, 1951, 7:2:1672 (21 May 1951)

137 espoused by General MacArthur FO Weekly Political Summary, 19–25 May 1951; Foot (1985), p. 140

137 show of force FRUS, 1951, 7:2:1608 (25 March 1951)

137 increase the problems of control FRUS, 1951, 7:2:1674 (22 May 1951)

137–38 involvement with guerrilla warfare FRUS, 1951, 7:2:1598–1605 (21 March 1951)

138 immediate preparations FRUS, 1951, 7:1:296 (5 April 1951)

138 without further reference FRUS, 1951, 7:1:386 (28 April 1951)

138 minimising allied dissension FRUS, 1951, 7:1:399 (2 May 1951)

138 further widening of Ridgway’s authority FRUS, 1951, 7:1:1107–08 (3 November 1951)

138 significant strategic opportunity FRUS, 1951, 7:1:1390 (20 December 1951)

139 that Moscow, St Petersburg, Mukden Longhand Note of President Harry S. Truman, 27 January 1952, HSTL:, accessed 6/7/2017

139 war by tantrum James Reston, The New York Times, 9 April 1974:, accessed 8/8/2017

139 disturbed at the thought James Schnabel and Robert Watson, History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy 19511953, The Korean War, vol. 3, part 2, p. 147:, accessed 25/5/2017

140 power blackout in North Korea Foot (1985), p. 178

140 no more surprises John Gittings, ‘Talks, Bombs and Germs: Another Look at the Korean War’, Journal of Contemporary Asia, 1 January 1975, vol. 5, iss. 2, p. 214

140 snafu FO, 24 June-17 July 1952; Foot (1985), p. 179

140 for fear that the allies would raise objections FO, 24 June–17 July 1952; Foot (1985), p. 179

141 for all the great and sincere efforts Hastings, pp. 285–86

141 peak number of American ground forces Jager, p. 482

142 weeks, even months, without glimpsing Hastings, p. 312

142 flak seldom troubled them Hastings, p. 318; Callum MacDonald, Korea: The War Before Vietnam, The Free Press, 1986, p. 229

CHAPTER 10 The Bombing Campaign

143 long, leisurely and merciless Blaine Harden, The Washington Post, 24 March 2015:, accessed 1/6/2017

143 father of overkill Bacevich (2010), p. 36

143 back to the Stone Age Curtis LeMay and MacKinlay Kantor, Mission with LeMay: My Story, Doubleday, 1965, p. 565

143 one of the most terrible things David Gallen, The Quotable Truman, Carroll & Graf, 1994, p. 162

144 smell the flesh burning Neer, p. 81; ABC Radio National Radio Eye: Tokyo’s Burning, 1995:, accessed 5/6/2017

144 weren’t even in the same league Bacevich (2010), p. 44

144 Over a period of three years Richard Kohn and Joseph Harahan (eds.), Strategic Air Warfare: An Interview with Generals Curtis E. LeMay, Leon W. Johnson, David A. Burchinal, and Jack J. Catton, Office of Air Force History, 1988, p. 88

144 no innocent civilians Michael Sherry, The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon, Yale University Press, 1987, p. 287

144 abstract form of violence Gardner (1972), p. 129

144 we killed off over a million Kohn and Harahan p. 88; Neer, p. 100

144 tried as a war criminal Colonel Alfred Hurley and Major Robert Ehrhart (eds.), Air Power and Warfare: The Proceedings of the 8th Military History Symposium, United States Air Force Academy, Office of Air Force History, 1979, p. 200; A. C. Grayling, Among the Dead Cities: Is the Targeting of Civilians in War Ever Justified? Bloomsbury, 2007, p. 171

144 wanton destruction of cities Article 6, Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis, and Charter of the International Military Tribunal, 8 August 1945:, accessed 29/8/2017

144 inhumane acts Article 6, Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis, and Charter of the International Military Tribunal, 8 August 1945:, accessed 29/8/2017

145 instrument of enforcement Grayling, p. 230

145 concrete and direct military advantage Article 51, Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), 8 June 1977:, accessed 29/8/2017

145 not indiscriminate Futrell, p. 41; Neer, p. 96

145 We did it all later anyhow US Senate, Military Situation in the Far East: Hearings before the Committee on Armed Services and Committee on Foreign Relations, Eighty-Second Congress, (MacArthur Hearings), June 1951, part 4, p. 3110:$b643208;view=1up;seq=556, accessed 10/7/2017

145 Joint Chiefs would generally disapprove Futrell, p. 194

146 When China intervened Neer, p. 96

146 destroy every means of communication Futrell, p. 221; Blair, p. 393

146 O’Donnell’s testimony at MacArthur hearings MacArthur Hearings, June 1951, part 4, p. 3110:$b643208;view=1up;seq=556, accessed 10/7/2017

146 more forceful action Foot (1985), p. 177; Futrell, p. 448

146 scheduled for destruction O’Neill (1985), p. 390

147 as a strategic target Charles Young, Name, Rank and Serial Number: Exploiting Korean War POWs at Home and Abroad, Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 77

147 undermining the morale FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:46970 (1 September 1952)

147 all major factories were on the periphery US Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 19 June 1946, HSTL:, accessed 14/7/2017; Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, Vintage Books, 1996, p. 523; Ralph Raico ‘Harry Truman and the Atomic Bomb’, Mises Institute, 24 November 2010:, accessed 21/8/2017

147 systematically bombed town by town Young, p. 77

147 never seen such devastation MacArthur Hearings, May 1951, part 1, p. 82:;id=umn.31951d02097857x;view=1up;seq=92;start=1;sz=10;page=search;num=82, accessed 10/7/2017

147 every brick standing on top of another Robin Anderson, A Century of Media, A Century of War, Peter Lang Publishing 2006, p. 41; Korea: The Unknown War (1988), DVD, London, Thames Television; extracts from the DVD can be viewed at, accessed 15/8/2017

147 everywhere we marched Young, p. 77

148 virtually no structures remained Young, p. 77

148 most unpopular affair Cabinet Meeting Minutes, 12 September 1952, HSTL:, accessed 10/7/2017

148 the relentless bombing Ian Irvine, The Independent, 30 September 2006:, accessed 10/7/2017

149 strafing at low level Gittings, p. 213

149 blowing up all over Gittings, p. 213

149 almost no buildings were left Harrison, p. 9

149 fetish for credibility Jeffrey Goldberg, ‘The Obama Doctrine: How He’s Shaped the World’, The Atlantic, April 2016, vol. 317, no. 3, p. 74

149 no immediate publicity Foot (1985), p. 178

149 removal of all restrictions FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:528 (23 September 1952)

149 against appropriate targets JCS Records, Omar Bradley, 9 October 1952; Foot (1985), p. 184

149 all set for a big offensive John Munro and Alex Inglis (eds.), Mike: The Memoirs of the Rt. Hon. Lester B. Pearson 1948–1957, University of Toronto Press, 2015, vol. 2, p. 327; Foot (1985), p. 186

149 stop fooling around Richard Haynes, The Awesome Power: Harry S. Truman as Commander in Chief, Louisiana State University Press, 1974, p. 237; Foot (1985), p. 189

150 Never in the history of our Nation Congressman Gordon McDonough in Foot (1985), p. 190

150 losing 600 million to Communism Address of Senator Nixon to the American People: The ‘Checkers Speech’, 23 September 1952:, accessed 17/8/2017

150 described as a trap Foot (1985), p. 193

150 favoured repudiation FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:894 (8 April 1953)

150 Buildings, crops and irrigation John Gittings, ‘The War before Vietnam’ in Gavan McCormack and Mark Selden (eds.), Korea, North and South: The Deepening Crisis, Monthly Review Press, 1978, p. 68; Gavan McCormack, Cold War Hot War: An Australian Perspective on the Korean War, Hale & Iremonger, 1983, p. 126

150 wiped out rice paddies Harrison, p. 9

151 almost completely destroyed David Rees, Korea: The Limited War, Penguin Books, 1970, p. 381

151 the resultant floodwaters O’Neill (1985), p. 397

151 cause famine in North Korea Rees, p. 381

151 never really became conscious Harden:, accessed 1/6/2017

151 cooking oil Neer, p. 93

152 hell bombs Neer, p. 92

152 Burn ’em out, cook ’em, fry ’em John Ford, This is Korea! 1951:, accessed 5/6/2017

152 Napalm, the No. 1 Weapon New York Tribune, 15 October 1950; Neer, p. 93

152 a small company of scientists Vannevar Bush, Pieces of the Action, Morrow, 1970, p. 31

153 large burning globs of sticky gel Louis Fieser, The Scientific Method: A Personal Account of Unusual Projects in War and in Peace, Reinhold Publishing, 1964, p. 12

154 James Bond’s Q Branch Neer, p. 42

154 adheres to every solid body Pliny the Elder, ‘Of Maltha’, The Natural History:, accessed 13/7/2017

154 A shattered structure Neer, p. 17

154 large targets…suffered more damage per ton ‘Fundamentals of Aerospace Weapons Systems’, Air Force ROTC Air University, Government Printing Office, 1961, p. 133; Neer, p. 17

155 corpse bolt upright René Cutforth, Korean Reporter, A. Wingate, 1952, p. 174

155 kept the exact postures George Barrett, The New York Times, 9 February 1951:®ion=TopBar&WT.nav=searchWidget&module=SearchSubmit&pgtype=Homepage#/george+barrett/from19510209to19510209/, accessed 13/7/2017

155 stinking of the vomit Walter Karig, Battle Report: The War in Korea, Council on Books in Wartime, 1960, vol. 6, p. 111; Alan Levine, Stalin’s Last War: Korea and the Approach to World War III, McFarland & Company, 2005, p. 70

155 I do not like this napalm bombing Churchill Memorandum, 22 August in Michael Dockrill, ‘The Foreign Office, Anglo-American relations and the Korean Truce Negotiations July 1951–1953’ in James Cotton and Ian Neary (eds.), The Korean War in History, Manchester University Press, 1989, p. 108

155 sensationalised reporting Acheson to Pusan Embassy, 17 February 1951 in Cumings (2011), p. 30

156 harm Anglo-American relations Dockrill, pp. 107–08

156 burned the skin to a crisp Knox and Coppel, p. 552; Neer, p. 101

156 like a surgical glove Salmon, p. 123

156 a slaughter such as I have never heard of MacArthur Hearings, May 1951, part 1, p. 82:;id=umn.31951d02097857x;view=1up;seq=92;start=1;sz=10;page=search;num=82, accessed 26/7/2017

157 average good day Neer, p. 99

157 only 17.2 percent B. C. Koh, ‘The War’s Impact on the Korean Peninsula’, The Journal of American-East Asian Relations, Spring 1993, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 59

157 air bombing was so devastating State Department, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, 10 October 1953 in Rosemary Foot, A Substitute for Victory: The Politics of Peacemaking at the Korean Armistice Talks, Cornell University Press, 1990, p. 208

157 two to four million…most of it non-combatants Mark Selden, ‘A Forgotten Holocaust: US Bombing Strategy, the Destruction of Japanese Cities & the American Way of War from World War II to Iraq’, The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus, May 2007, vol. 5, p. 17

157 about three million Koreans Koh, pp. 57–58

157 declined by 1.3 million Koh, p. 68

158 massive retaliation Emmet Hughes, The Ordeal of Power: A Political Memoir of the Eisenhower Years, Atheneum, 1963, p. 163

158 our clear superiority Hughes, p. 105

CHAPTER 11 Nuclear Near Miss

159 the most revolutionary force…no possibility of control Einstein letter, 22 January 1947, Einstein Archives:, accessed 31/5/2017

159 disastrous illusion Albert Einstein Warns of Dangers in Nuclear Arms Race, 2 December 1950, NBC Learn:, accessed 31/5/2017

160 tremendously pepped up FRUS, 1945, 2:1361 (18 July 1945)

160 a changed man Edward Boorstein and Regula Boorstein, Counterrevolution: US Foreign Policy, International Publishers, 1990, p. 47

160 It was natural Peter Townsend, The Postman of Nagasaki, Penguin Books, 1985, p. 54

160 exterminating civilian populations History of The Strategic Arms Competition: 19451972, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historical Office, March 1981, part 1, p. 65:, accessed 4/8/2017

160 take out FRUS, 1950, 7:159–60 (25 June 1950); Roger Dingman, ‘Atomic Diplomacy during the Korean War’, International Security, Winter 1988–89, vol. 13, iss. 3, p. 55

161 let the world know…determination to prevail Curtis LeMay, Diary, 8 July 1950; Dingman, pp. 57–59

161 Russian target materials LeMay, Diary, 8 July 1950; Dingman, pp. 57–59

161 demonstrate America’s resolve Dingman, p. 59

161 wide consequences…unfriendly act Dingman, p. 58

162 the probable costs FRUS, 1950, 7:1098–100 (8 November 1950)

162 one of the worst blunders Blair, p. 522

163 military commander in the field The President’s News Conference, 30 November 1950, HSTL:, accessed 17/7/2017

163 Some diplomatists were so convinced Farrar-Hockley, p. 356

163 America had to be restrained FO, 2 December 1950; Foot (1986), p. 45

163 fears and doubts of all Foot (1986), p. 46

164 get Truman’s finger off The New York Times, 1 December 1950:, accessed 17/7/2017; Dingman, p. 66

164 to share command and control FRUS, 1950, 7:1431–32 (7 December 1950)

164 he desired commander’s discretion…a list of retardation targets Cumings (1997), p. 290

164 frighten our allies to death…a wasting asset NSC meeting minutes, 25 January 1951 in Dingman, p. 69

164 cut them off…Sweeten up my B-29 force General Bolte to General Collins, 13 July 1950 in Cumings (1990), p. 749

164 dropped 30 or so atomic bombs…plan was a cinch The New York Times, 9 April 1964:, accessed 31/5/2017

165 Enemy planes parked wingtip Dingman, p. 72

165 expel the US from Korea FRUS, 1951, 7:1:426 (10 May 1951)

165 just one phase of this battle MacArthur Hearings, May 1951, part 2, p. 731:$b643206;view=1up;seq=17, accessed 17/7/2017

166 contact persons capable FRUS, 1951, 7:2:1476–1503 (6–7 January and 12–13 January 1951); Dingman, p. 76

166 lay waste their cities FRUS, 1951, 7:2:1476–1503 (6–7 January and 12–13 January 1951)

166 Americans can bomb us Kavalam Panikkar, In Two Chinas: Memoirs of a Diplomat, George Allen & Unwin, 1955, p. 108

166 timely identification Cumings (1990), p. 752

166 the atomic blast would go Daniel Calingaert, ‘Nuclear Weapons and the Korean War’, Journal of Strategic Studies, June 1988, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 184

166 a ground to ground vehicle Foot (1985), p. 260

167 Moscow, St Petersburg Diary entry of Harry S Truman, 27 January 1952, HSTL:, accessed 31/5/2017

167 tactical use of atomic weapons JCS, 3 April 1952 in Foot (1985), p. 177

167 nuclear weapons would be essential Bevin Alexander, Korea: The First War We Lost, Revised ed., Hippocrene Books, 1998, p. 468; Foot (1985), p. 201

168 A Policy of Boldness John Dulles, ‘A Policy of Boldness’, Life, Time Inc., 19 May 1952, vol. 32, no. 20, pp. 146–63

168 moral problem…break down this distinction FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:770 (11 February 1953)

168 in complete agreement FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:827 (31 March 1953)

168 voiding the armistice Foot (1985), p. 211

169 achieve a substantial victory FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:826 (31 March 1953)

169 misguided self-righteousness Foot (1985), p. 210

169 necessary to expand the war FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:805–06 (6 March 1953)

169 stronger rather than a lesser FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:1068 (21 May 1953)

169 most likely to achieve the objective FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:1067 (20 May 1953)

CHAPTER 12 Secrets and Lies

170 starting an atomic war is totally unthinkable Harry S. Truman’s Farewell Address, 15 January 1953, HSTL:, accessed 27/7/2017

170 invalid reasoning of the Russians Letter from Thomas Murray to Harry S. Truman, 16 January 1953, HSTL:, accessed 7/6/2017

170 worse than gas or biological warfare Letter from Harry S. Truman to Thomas Murray, 19 January 1953, HSTL:, accessed 7/6/2017

170 bacteriological methods of warfare Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, 17 June 1925:, accessed 24/8/2017

170 second only to the Manhattan Project Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, The United States and Biological Warfare, Indiana University Press, 1998, p. 31

171 over 3800 military personnel David Franz, Cheryl Parrott and Ernest Takafuji, ‘The US Biological Warfare and Biological Defense Programs’, Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Office of The Surgeon General at TMM Publications, 1997, p. 427

171 special consultant on biological warfare Henry Stimson and Paul McNutt to Franklin Roosevelt, 12 May 1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library:, accessed 7/6/2017

172 more extensive than those of Dr Josef Mengele Christopher Reed, ‘The United States and the Japanese Mengele: Payoffs and Amnesty for Unit 731’, The Asia-Pacific Journal, August 2006, vol. 4, iss. 8, p. 2:, accessed 29/8/2017

172 hundreds of thousands…as many as ten thousand Amy Smithson, Germ Gambits: The Bioweapons Dilemma, Iraq and Beyond, Stanford University Press, 2011, p. 232

173 Evidence gathered in this investigation…was a pittance Dr Edwin Hill, ‘Summary Report on Biological Weapons Investigations’, 12 December 1947 in Sheldon Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932–1945 and the American Cover-up, Routledge, 2002, p. 66; and John Powell, ‘Japan’s Germ Warfare: The US Cover-up of a War Crime’, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, October-December 1980, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 10

173 utmost secrecy is essential Sheldon Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932–1945 and the American Cover-up, Routledge, 2002, p. 208

173 be held in intelligence channels Jeanne Guillemin, Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State-Sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism, Columbia University Press, 2005, p. 79

173 for the benefit of the United States Letter from General Willoughby to Chief of Staff, Far East Command, 17 July 1947, in Reed, p. 5:, accessed 29/8/2017

173 bitter experience for me Reed, p. 3:, accessed 29/8/2017

174 no useful distinction…not enough is being done Report of the Committee on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare and Recommendations, 30 June 1950, US Department of Energy, Office of History and Heritage Records:, accessed 7/6/2017

174 The biological warfare allowance Endicott and Hagerman (1998), p. 48

174 Fort Detrick was expanded Franz, Parrott and Takafuji, p. 429

174 large-scale realistic trials Memorandum by the Joint Advanced Study Committee for the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Biological Warfare, JCS 1837/26, 21 September 1951, Library of Congress, Washington

174–75 actual readiness be achieved Secretary of Defense Directive, 21 December 1951:, accessed 27/7/2017

175 a strong offensive BW…be prepared to employ whenever Joint Chiefs of Staff, ‘Decision on JCS 1837/26’, 25 February 1952, Library of Congress, Washington

175 enthusiastic Simon Winchester, Bomb, Book and Compass: Joseph Needham and the Great Secrets of China, Penguin Group, 2008, p. 209

175 9500 documents had been restored Scott Shane, The New York Times, 21 February 2006:, accessed 27/7/2017

175 a secret government program The Washington Post, 27 February 2006:, accessed 27/7/2017

175 to cover up embarrassments Shane:, accessed 27/7/2017

176 intelligence staff told him Winchester, p. 210

176 false areas of exposure…false plague regions Kathryn Weathersby, ‘New Evidence on the Korean War: Deceiving the Deceivers: Moscow, Beijing, Pyongyang, and the Allegations of Bacteriological Weapons Use in Korea’, Bulletin 11, Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center, Winter 1998, pp. 176–85, esp. p. 180

177 joint field trials Smithson (2011), p. 231–32, in Endicott and Hagerman, p. 76

177 arthropod dissemination…a more effective vehicle Endicott and Hagerman, pp. 74–77

177 devising means and mechanisms Department of Defense, Committee on Biological Warfare, 1951 Program Guidance Report, 5 December 1950; Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, ‘United States Biological Warfare during the Korean War: Rhetoric and Reality’, York University, June 2002:, accessed 27/7/2014

178 biological bomb HQ Air Force Materiel Command, Weapons of the US Air Force: A Selective Listing, 1960–2000, Historical Study No. 14, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 2000; Endicott and Hagerman, (2002):, accessed 27/7/2014

179 to escape injury and fatalities Endicott and Hagerman (1998), appendix 4

179 only one moral obligation Lieutenant General (retired) Jimmy Doolittle, April 1952 in Conrad Crane, ‘Chemical and Biological Warfare during the Korean War: Rhetoric and Reality’, Asian Perspectives, 2001, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 74–75

179–80 burn barrel Endicott and Hagerman (1998), p. 172

180 Far East Command ordered Far East Command, Command Report, July–Sept 1956 in Paul Cassell, ‘Establishing Violations of International Law: Yellow Rain and the Treaties Regulating Chemical and Biological Warfare’, Stanford Law Review, January 1983, vol. 35, iss. 2, p. 271; Endicott and Hagerman (1998), p. 172

180 Deception in Biological Warfare field Memoranda to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, US Army and Chief of Naval Operations, 1 February 1952, Library of Congress, Washington; Endicott and Hagerman, (2002_:, accessed 27/7/2014

180 the United States did not intend…impossible Endicott and Hagerman, (2002):, accessed 27/7/2017

180 some of which were destroyed…to kill someone US Senate, ‘Unauthorised Storage of Toxic Agents’, Hearings before the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 16 September 1975, Washington, vol. 1, pp. 22–23:, accessed 27/7/2017

180 floating laboratories Young, p. 113

181 may face charges of treason Attorney General Herbert Brownell’s Press Release, 15 August 1953, in Jeffrey Lockwood, Six-Legged Soldiers: Using Insects as Weapons of War, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 184

181 those who collaborated Lockwood, p. 184

181 effete and indulgent society Jager, p. 294

181 concern about the credibility Meeting of POW Working Group, Operations Coordinating Board, 13 November 1953 in Endicott and Hagerman (1998), p. 167

182 Let me tell you something Zhu Chun interview in Endicott and Hagerman (1998), p. 158

182 The lady doth protest too much William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 2

182 most articulate defender Crane, p. 78

182 large-scale field experiments Harrison, p. 9

183 gentle and somewhat mystical Tom Buchanan, ‘The Courage of Galileo: Joseph Needham and the “Germ Warfare” Allegations in the Korean War’, History, October 2001, vol. 86, iss. 284, pp. 507–08

CHAPTER 13 Propaganda Prisoners

184 cross the 38th Parallel [again] Foot (1985), p. 240

185 the language of machismo Foot (1985), p. 241

185 compromise with the Communists Barton Bernstein, ‘The Struggle over the Korean Armistice: Prisoners of Repatriation?’ in Bruce Cumings, Child of Conflict: The Korean American Relationship 194353, University of Washington Press, 1983, p. 268

186 firm and clear commitment Foot (1990), p. 17

186 treacherous savages FRUS, 1951, 7:1:788 (7 August 1951)

186 common criminals Foot (1990), p. 11

186 quality of talking animals FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:513 (15 September 1952)

186 sons of bitches Foot (1990), p. 11

186 if only they were bombed enough Alexander, p. 468

186 arrive at parallel advantages Foot (1990), p. 17

187 would accomplish the military purposes MacArthur Hearings, June 1951, part 3, p. 1782:$b643207;view=1up;seq=132, accessed 18/7/2017

187 would fulfil the main purposes Alexander, p. 426; Foot (1990), p. 45

187 tremendous victory for the United Nations MacArthur Hearings, May 1951, part 1, p. 454:$b643205;view=1up;seq=464, accessed 18/7/2017

187 statement by Jacob Malik FRUS, 1951, 7:1:560 (27 June 1951); Foot (1990), p. 37

187 appeasement peace Foot (1990), p. 38

187 somewhat more than an even military result Foot (1990), p. 46

188 everything possible to deflate FRUS, 1951, 6:1:3363 (17 May 1951)

188 minimum negotiating position FRUS, 1951, 7:1:739–45 (27 July 1951)

188 strong sense of guilt Foot (1990), p. 47

188 as contemporaries recognised Bernstein, p. 269

188 for two hours and eleven minutes FRUS, 1951, 7:1: 807 (11 August 1951)

188–89 a display of US power Foot (1990), p. 59

189 purple adjectives FRUS, 1951, 7:1:931 (22 September 1951)

189 resisting making concessions FRUS, 1951, 7:1:960 (26 September 1951)

189 decided not to follow our views FRUS, 1951, 7:1:960 (26 September 1951)

189 more steel and less silk FRUS, 1951, 7:1:1129 (13 November 1951)

190 attacked all structures Young, p. 25

190 not necessitated by combat conditions Mark Elliott, ‘The United States and Forced Repatriation of Soviet Citizens, 1944–47’, Political Science Quarterly, June 1973, vol. 88, no. 2, p. 259

191 growing reluctance Elliott, p. 272

191 distressing cases Report on the Work of the Conference of Government Experts for the Study of the Conventions for the Protection of War Victims, 14–26 April 1947, p. 245:, accessed 19/7/2017; J. A. C. Gutteridge, ‘The Repatriation of Prisoners of War’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, April 1953, vol. 2, p. 211

192 Austria proposed an amendment Final Record of Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1949, Section A: Minutes of Plenary Meetings (Final Record, Geneva 1949), April and May 1949, vol. 2, p. 324:, accessed 19/7/2017

192 might not be able to express himself Final Record, Geneva 1949:, accessed 19/7/2017

192 an un-coerced, unintimidated, informed choice Foot (1990), p. 125

193 systematic physical torture was not employed Young, p. 49

193 four times greater Hastings, p. 379

193 for whose services Hastings, p. 385

193 least impressive manpower Hastings, p. 381

193 Gambling, drink and local whores Hastings, p. 381

193 we ended up with the scum…waiting for trouble Hastings, pp. 379–80

194 below even the American dregs Young, p. 34

194 shall be directed toward their exploitation FRUS, 1950, 7:718 (9 September 1950)

194 vigorous propagandists Young, p. 39

194 Each compound seethes with intrigue ‘The Enemy: Beggars’ Island’, Time magazine, 28 January 1952, vol. 59, iss. 4

195 psy-warriors could not have realised Young, p. 36

196 severely punished, sentenced to slave labour Foot (1990), p. 87

196 Australian Ambassador was forthright FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:171 (26 April 1952)

196 debatable whether any prisoner…intensive re-education Foot (1990), p. 100

196 savoured the [expected] propaganda victory Bernstein, p. 282

197 strict observance Letter from Dean Acheson to George Marshall, 27 August 1951, HSTL:, accessed 15/6/2017

197 State Department officers also warned FRUS, 1952–1954: 15:1:38–39 (4 February 1952)

197 the president’s tendency Foot (1990), p. 89

197 not an equitable basis FRUS, 1951, 7:1:1073 (29 October 1951)

197 Are they murdered Longhand note of Harry S. Truman, 18 May 1952, HSTL:, accessed 15/6/2017

198 would undermine the whole basis Bernstein, pp. 278–79

198 Well, we have rationalised FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:494 (8 September 1952)

198 would be repugnant…seriously jeopardise FRUS, 1952–1954, 15:1:44 (8 February 1952)

199 approximately 125,000 Americans Walter Hermes, Truce Tent and Fighting Front, United States Department of the Army, Office of Military History, 1966, p. 501

199 American ambassador labelled ‘Gestapos’ Oral History Interview with John Muccio Special Representative of the President to Korea 1948–49, 18 February 1971, HSTL:, accessed 15/8/2017

199 remain in the POW camp indefinitely FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:99 (14 March 1952)

199 Down with communist dogs Young, p. 42

199 if not outright assistance FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:99 (14 March 1952); Foot (1990), p. 112

199 shooting them for relatively trivial Foot (1990), p. 110

199 British and Australian observers Foot (1990), p. 110

199–200 I couldn’t get over how cruel Hastings, p. 329

200 prisoners who throw or attempt Foot (1990), pp. 12021

200 the results of the screening Foot (1990), p. 116

200 step into dreamland Young, p. 77

200 organised murders FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:360 (28 June 1952)

200 A 20 May memorandum…some doubt Sargeant to Acheson, 20 May 1952; Foot (1990), p. 126

200 firecrackers under the table Foot (1990), p. 126

200 short supply of human rights, maintenance of dignity Foot (1990), p. 109

200 the actual objects of [US] concern Stelle to Nitze, 24 January 1952 in Foot (1990), p. 125

201 refusal of some 80,000 Foot (1990), p. 127

201 both The Economist and The Times Foot (1990), p. 134

201 struggled to block other nations Bernstein, p. 301

201 seduced America’s allies…the conspirators Acheson to Truman, 25 October 1952; Bernstein, p. 302

201 divisions among us Acheson, 22 November 1952; Bernstein, p. 303

202 Zhou En-lai proposed FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:920 (20 April 1953)

202 outside the control of the detaining power FRUS, 19521954, 15:1:920 (20 April 1953)

202 protecting them…propaganda victories Young, p. 96

203 less than one-sixth Young, p. 101

203 the commission concluded Final Report of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission; Young, p. 101

203 would have seen their families Young, p. 102

CHAPTER 14 New World Order

207 If we have to use force Interview US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright on the NBC Today Show, 19 February 1998:, accessed 19/6/2017

207 Korea’s legacy is practically incalculable Lloyd Gardner, ‘Korean Borderlands—Imaginary Frontiers of the Cold War’ in Stueck (2004), p. 142

207–8 We honor no treaties Gore Vidal, Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace: How We Got to Be So Hated, Public Affairs, 2002, p. 158

209 to exert upon the world Henry Luce, ‘The American Century’, Life magazine, 17 February 1941, vol. 10, no. 7, p. 63

209 Korea saved us Dean Acheson, Princeton Seminars, 9 July 1953 in Gardner (2004), p. 142; Beisner, p. 377

209 perpetual war for perpetual peace Vidal, 2002

209–10 underwriting about 80 percent Michael Nojeim and David Kilroy, Days of Decision: Turning Points in US Foreign Policy, Potomac Books Inc., 2011, p. 74

210 Where our own security Robert McNamara and Brian VanDeMark, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam, Time Books, 1995, p. 323

210 By 1952, the number of personnel Goulden, p. 475

210 a rogue elephant Bacevich (2010), p. 124

210 reach into every corner James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies, Regnery Publishing, 1999, p. 439

211 Operation TP-Stole Goulden, pp. 462–75

212 a personal, secret, unaccountable Chalmers Johnson, Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic, Metropolitan Books, 2006, p. 93

212 an order of Knights Templar Bacevich (2010), p. 39

212 prized zeal rather than balance Bacevich (2010), p. 39

212 significant steps towards Nicaragua v United States of America, ICJ Reports 1986, p. 14 at [169]

212 However the regime in Nicaragua…some particular ideology or political system Nicaragua v United States of America, ICJ Reports 1986, p. 14 at [263]

213 the well-wisher to the freedom of all ‘John Quincy Adams on US Foreign Policy (1821)’, The Future of Freedom Foundation:, accessed 19/7/2017

213 unexcelled by any other position…safety moat William Manchester, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 18801964, Hutchinson Group Australia, 1978, p. 35

214 Philippines are ours forever Senator Albert Beveridge, ‘In Support of an American Empire’, 9 January 1900:, accessed 20/6/2017; Wendy Wolff (ed.), The Senate 17891989, Classic Speeches 18301993, US Government Printing Office, 1994, vol. 3, p. 493

214 opposed to having the eagle Mark Twain, New York Herald, 15 October 1900:, accessed 20/6/2017

214 ‘Christianize’ the heathens Interview with President William McKinley in The Christian Advocate, 22 January 1903, p. 17

214 The strategic boundaries of the US FRUS, 1948, 6:699 (5 March 1948)

214 to prevent the rise of any other US Force Posture Strategy in the Asia Pacific Region: An Independent Assessment, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, August 2012, p. 13:, accessed 20/6/2017

215 US affiliated encampments James Fallows, The Atlantic, December 2016:, accessed 28/7/2017

215 The American bases in the Asia-Pacific David Vine, Base Nation: How US Military Bases Abroad Harm America and the World, Metropolitan Books, 2015, pp. 6–7

215 Okinawa, the poorest prefecture Vine, pp. 255–57

215 Tiny Guam Vine, pp. 84–86

216 just measure of Pacific lebensraum Simon Winchester, Pacific: The Ocean of the Future, William Collins, 2015, p. 423

216 withdraw to its natural sphere Marvin Ott, ‘Southeast Asian Security: A Regional Perspective’, Asian Perspectives on the Challenges of China, Papers from the Asia-Pacific Symposium 7–8 March 2000, National Defense University Press, Washington, 2001, p. 42

216 a long-term overstretch…financially unsustainable Peter Hartcher, Sydney Morning Herald, 29 November 2016:, accessed 19/7/2017

216 absolute material and strategic equality Interview with Henry Kissinger in Jeffrey Goldberg, The Atlantic, December 2016:, accessed 19/7/2017

216 firm goals, set dates Winchester, (2015) p. 415

217 no special military significance ‘China: US Policy Since 1945’, Congressional Quarterly, 1980, p. 88; Cheng-yi Lin, ‘The Legacy of the Korean War: Impact on US-Taiwan Relations’, Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, Winter 1992, vol. 11, iss. 4

217 force or other forms of coercion Section 2(b)(6), Taiwan Relations Act, 10 April 1979

217 Grace of Heaven…one huge [American] supply depot Michael Schaller, ‘The Korean War: The Economic and Strategic Impact on Japan, 1950–1953’ in Stueck (2004), p. 148

218 forever renounce war Article 9, The Constitution of Japan, 3 May 1947

218 obstacle to strengthening Sayuri Umeda,Japan: Article 9 of the Constitution’, The Law Library of Congress, February 2006, p. 32:, accessed 19/7/2017

218 Colin Powell even insisted…a ‘normal’ nation Johnson, p. 199

219 Soviets had been given free rein Winchester, (2015) p. 156

220 the [indefinite] right to dispose Article 4, Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea, 1 October 1953

220 act to meet the common danger Article 3, Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea, 1 October 1953

220 down to 600,000 Bacevich (2010), p. 125

221 Data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SIPRI, 5 April 2016:, accessed 31/7/2017

221 Credit Suisse report reached a similar conclusion Sky Gould and Jeremy Bender, Business Insider, 1 September 2015:, accessed 19/7/2017

221 by some calculations Andrew Bacevich, The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by War, Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 17

221 defense is not a budget item Bacevich (2008), p. 40

221 Deficits don’t matter Andrew Yarrow, Forgive Us Our Debts: The Intergenerational Dangers of Fiscal Irresponsibility, Yale University Press, 2008, p. 59

221 By the 2015 financial year ‘Fighting for a US Federal Budget that Works for All Americans’, National Priorities Project:, accessed 19/7/2017

221 military-industrial complex Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Speech, 17 January 1961:, accessed 19/7/2017

222 Were the Soviet Union to sink George Kennan, Foreword in Norman Cousins, The Pathology of Power, Norton, 1987

222 I’m running out of villains Jim Wolfe, ‘Powell Sees Opportunity for US to Reduce Military Strength’, Defense News, 8 April 1991; Harrison, p. 187

223 strong military is more important Alex Johnson, NBC News, 26 January 2017:, accessed 4/8/2017

223 self-selecting, self-perpetuating Bacevich (2008), p. 81

223 cast of mind that defines Bacevich (2008), p. 82

223 massive and redundant Bacevich (2013), p. 17

223 prowling around the globe Bacevich (2013), p. 17

223 full spectrum military dominance Bacevich (2008), p. 130

225 truest measure of national greatness Bacevich (2013), p. 2

225 the scum of the earth Philip Henry, 5th Earl Stanhope, in Notes of Conversations with the Duke of Wellington 1831–1851, 4 November 1831, Pickle Partners Publishing, 2011 (originally published in 1870)

225 the apotheosis of all that is great Bacevich (2013), p. 23

225 power grows out of the barrel of a gun Mao Zedong, Speech addressing the Problems of War and Strategy, 6 November 1938:, accessed 19/7/2017

225 military metaphysics C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite, Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 222 (originally published 1956)

226 international problems as military problems Bacevich (2013), p. 2

CHAPTER 15 Dystopia

227 an article of faith…self-interested interloper Harrison, p. 103

228 American self-interest and convenience Choong-Nam Kim, ‘The Management of the ROK-US Relations in the Post-Cold War Era’, The Journal of East Asian Affairs, Spring/Summer 2003, vol. 17, iss. 1, p. 90

228 artificial underground caves Harrison, p. 8

228 original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution Don Oberdorfer, The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History, Perseus Books, 2001, p. 19

228–29 best metaphor Nicholas Kristof, The New York Times, 20 August 1989:, accessed 25/7/2017

229 helps in understanding Harrison, p. 18

229 one big kibbutz Bernard Krisher, ‘Report from North Korea’, Gekkan Asahi, September 1991, p. 15; Harrison, p. 16

229 not so much a nation as a religion Kristof:, accessed 25/7/2017

229 much more challenging Rüdiger Frank, ‘Between Wishful Thinking and Realism: Hopes for a Pyongyang Spring’, 38 North, 29 September 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

229 not seek an excuse Rex Tillerson, Remarks at the Press Briefing Room, 1 August 2017, US Department of State:, accessed 7/8/2017

229 We’re practicing invading them Jeffrey Lewis, ‘North Korea Is Practicing for Nuclear War’, Foreign Policy, 9 March 2017:, accessed 24/7/2017

230 an important deterrent Dursun Peksen, ‘Authoritarian Regimes and Economic Sanction Effectiveness: The Case of North Korea’, Korea Economic Institute of America, 23 June 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

230 lost cause’ and a ‘non-starter’ David Brunnstrom, Reuters, 26 October 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

230 their only current asset General Grant, 11 April 2000 in Harrison, p. 132

231 destroy the basis United States Mission Non-Paper: Defense Impacts of Potential United Nations General Assembly Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty, Annexure 2, 17 October 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

231 There is a permanence George Friedman, ‘The Dark Night: North Korean Strategy’, Mauldin Economics, 21 March 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

231 the concerns of many Americans Dr Billy Graham, 31 March 1992 in Harrison, p. 108

232 a painful, brief anomaly Kim Dae Jung, ‘The Once and Future Korea’, Foreign Policy, Spring 1992, no. 86, p. 45

232 We do plan to engage Colin Powell, Press Conference, 6 March 2001, US Department of State:; Jean Edward Smith, Bush, Simon & Schuster, 2016, p. 187

232 got too far forward on his skis Alan Sipress and Steven Mufson, The Washington Post, 26 August 2001:, accessed 25/7/2017

233 agent of God placed on earth Smith, p. 233

233 first of a multitude of errors Smith, p. 188

233 unrealistic approach Harrison, p. 217

234 If you want to make peace Maureen Biwi, Nelson Mandela’s Quotes and Tributes, AA Global Sourcing Ltd, 2013, p. 24

234 much more effective Rüdiger Frank, 29 September 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

234 the most effective sanction on North Korea Simon Jenkins, The Guardian, 6 July 2017:, accessed 27/7/2017

234 the only path toward economic prosperity Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, ‘Prospects for Economic Reform in North Korea’, China Perspectives, 2012, no. 4, p. 71

234 the filthy wind of bourgeois liberty Rüdiger Frank, The 7th Party Congress in North Korea: A Return to a New Normal’, 38 North, 20 May 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

235 food is more important than bullets ‘Kim Jong-un: Food More Important Than Bullets’, 27 October 2010:, accessed 24/7/2017; Beauchamp-Mustafaga, p. 71

235 filing through the aisles Harrison, p. 30

235 change going on in North Korea ‘President Says DPRK Taking First Steps Toward Openness’, Korea Herald, 1 October 1998:, accessed 25/7/2017

235 we recognize that the world market Kim Jong U, ‘North Korea’s External Economic Policy’, Conference Paper, 2223 April 1996, in Harrison, p. 34

235 ensure that such economic levers Article 33, Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, 1998:, accessed 25/7/2017

236 significant reduction of state control Andrei Lankov, The New York Times, 21 January 2015:, accessed 24/7/2017

236–37 What is happening in the enterprise area Eric Talmadge, The Guardian, 5 March 2015:, accessed 24/7/2017

237 new management methods Talmadge:, accessed 24/7/2017

237 Estimates from the Seoul-based Bank of Korea Andrei Lankov, NK News, 6 February 2017:, accessed 27/7/2017

237 Some respected observers Lankov, 6 February 2017:, accessed 27/7/2017

239 ridiculously luxe ski resorts New York Post, 17 March 2016:, accessed 31/7/2017

239 grew by almost 38 percent Jane Perlez and Yufan Huang, The New York Times, 13 April 2017:, accessed 27/7/2017

239 acquiring the funds needed Mark Weissman and Linus Hagstrom, ‘Sanctions Reconsidered: The Path Forward with North Korea’, The Washington Quarterly, Fall 2016, vol. 39, iss. 3, p. 71

240 African nations apparently willing Salem Solomon, VOA News, 22 March 2017:, accessed 27/7/2017

240 Kim Yong-nam Ha-young Choi, NK News, May 2016:, accessed 7/8/2017

240 North Korea’s most senior diplomat Elizabeth Shim, UPI, 15 August 2016:, accessed 7/8/2017

241 between 80,000 and 120,000 Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Commission Report) A/HRC/25/CRP.1, 7 February 2014, p. 226

242 tend to come from privileged families Commission Report, p. 223

242 you will only drive them…only making things worse Fu Ying, Munich Security Conference, 18 February 2017:, accessed 24/7/2017

243 begun a new historic period…literally at the epicentre Vladimir Putin, Eastern Economic Forum, 3 September 2016:, accessed 25/7/2017

243 North Korea leaves us with a break…bridge of peace and prosperity Park Geun-hye, Eastern Economic Forum, 3 September 2016:, accessed 25/7/2017

244 impact of Washington’s own policies Richard McGregor, Financial Times, 7 February 2016:, accessed 24/7/2017

244 former Special Assistant to President Reagan Doug Bandow, The National Interest, 24 February 2017:, accessed 25/7/2017

244 America’s hostile policy is to blame Bandow:, accessed 25/7/2017

245 only reason the north Bandow:, accessed 25/7/2017

245 joint proposal Joint statement by the Russian and Chinese foreign ministries on the Korean Peninsula’s problems, 4 July 2014:, accessed 17/8/2017

245 offer to recognize…end to the Korean War Thomas Friedman, The New York Times, 10 August 2017:, accessed 15/8/2017; Friedman interview on CNN, 11 August 2017:; accessed 15/8/2017


246–47 Rudyard Kipling’s immortal words Rudyard Kipling, ‘The Young British Soldier’, 1892

247 later plotted and achieved Michael Scott, Scapegoats: Thirteen Victims of Military Injustice, Elliot and Thompson, 2013; pp. 185–208

247 You won’t get Maryang San John Essex-Clark, DSM, Hassett: Australian Leader, Australian Military History Publications, 2005, p. 15

247 Captain Shelton recalled Maurie Pears and Fred Kirkland, Korea Remembered, Doctrine Wing, Combined Arms Training and Development Centre, 1998, pp. 27071

250 monstrous anger of the guns Wilfred Owen, ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’, 1917

250 shrill demented choir Wilfred Owen, ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’, 1917

250 Dullness best solves Wilfred Owen, ‘Insensibility’, 1918



Notes on Sources

These notes are intended to assist those interested readers who wish to probe further. I have grouped them by reference to the principal topics addressed in the narrative, but they are a beginning not an end.

The Demilitarised Zone

The leading environmental historians on the strange and unintended ecological experiment that has occurred inside the demilitarised zone, are Lisa Brady from Boise State University, Peter Coates from Bristol University and Julia Adeney Thomas of Notre Dame. Their extensive writings on the subject are easily located. Readers may also like to consult the DMZ Forum, whose mission is to support the conservation of the unique biological and cultural resources of the demilitarised zone.

Geography and Climate

In addition to the many scientific and meteorological disquisitions, a condensed layman’s guide to North Korea’s extreme winter weather and the effect of the Siberian ‘High’ can be found in William Dando’s Food and Famine in the 21st Century (2012). A more comprehensive survey is contained in North Korea: Geographical Analysis (2003) published by the United States Military Academy, West Point.

The Pre-modern History

The history and anthropology of Korea before 1860 is attractively summarised for the popular reader in Chapter 1, ‘The Virtues’, in Bruce Cumings Korea’s Place in the Sun (1997). A more detailed account can be found in Cumings’ earlier work The Origins of the Korean War, vol. 1 (1981). James Scarth Gale’s History of the Korean People, originally published in 1927, is a classic but excessively romantic history that combines myth, legend and poetry.

The Missionaries

The remarkable story of the intrepid Jesuits who went to China, Japan and Korea is neatly condensed, with many useful notes, in the paper ‘Jesuits in Korea: Influence without Presence’ by Franklin D. Rausch. The later history of the Protestant missions in Korea is explained in George Paik’s The History of Protestant Missions in Korea 1832–1910, first published in 1927. And a comprehensive modern account of both can be found in James Grayson’s Korea—A Religious History (2013).

The Gunboats

An accessible account of the opening of Korea to Western trade and influence after 1860, the accompanying international rivalries and the brutal Japanese assassination of Queen Min, appears in Cumings’ Korea’s Place in the Sun, Chapter 2, ‘The Interests, 1860–1904’. Michael Finch’s Min Yong-hwan: A Political Biography (2002) puts these events into the context of the short ardent life of Prince Min.

The Division of Korea

Dean Rusk’s autobiographical reminiscences in As I saw It (1990) provide an invaluable insight from someone who actually drew the line. Sheila Miyoshi Jager’s monumental work Brothers at War (2013) provides an important modern commentary. And Cumings is once again comprehensive in his Origins, Vol.1. David Glantz’s article ‘August Storm: Soviet Tactical and Operational Combat in Manchuria’ explains the awesome power and speed with which the Soviet Army moved into North Korea.

The Military Occupations

Sheila Miyoshi Jager and Cumings are again significant on this issue; as is Alan Millett, especially in his The War for Korea 1945–1950 (2005) and Kathryn Weathersby in her paper ‘Soviet Aims in Korea and the Origins of the Korean War, 1945–1950’. I enjoyed the accounts by two of the leading British writers on the subject—the former war correspondent Sir Max Hastings and the former general Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley. Hastings’ classic work The Korean War (1987) is essential reading and Farrar-Hockley’s official history The British Part in the Korean War (1990) is replete with detailed and useful information.

Emergence of Separate States

On the failure of the United Nations process, the role of the United States in that failure and the emergence of two separate republics, Farrar-Hockley is perceptive, Sheila Miyoshi Jager is excellent and Cumings’ Origins, vol. 1, is comprehensive. A different, less critical perspective is provided in the numerous writings of the respected American historians William Stueck and Allan Millett; a pithy, critical account appears in Korea: Since 1850 (1993) by Stewart Lone and Gavan McCormack and in Cold War, Hot War (1983) by Gavan McCormack; and a scholarly account by the Korean-born historian Bong-youn Choy is set out in his A History of the Korean Reunification Movement, 1984.

Russia and China Intervention

The leading American scholar on the Soviet decision to support Kim-il Sung’s reunification attempt is Kathryn Weathersby. Her extensive writings drawn from Russian archives are readily found in the Bulletins and Working Papers of the Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars. Of the accounts focussing on China’s position, some of the best are: Jian, China’s Road to the Korean War (1994); Zhang, Mao’s Military Romanticism (1995); and Tsui, China’s Military Intervention in Korea (2015). William Stueck addresses both the Russian and Chinese involvement in his Rethinking the Korean War.

Crossing the 38th Parallel

Washington’s diplomatic dissembling over the decision to cross the 38th parallel is laid bare with many additional references to the British position by Farrar-Hockley. Both Hastings and Rosemary Foot in The Wrong War (1985) are also informative on this issue. Walter Millis in Arms and the State (1958) criticises the decision but other American writers and historians—including David Halberstam, The Coldest Winter (2008); Joseph Goulden, Korea: The Untold Story of the War (1982); Bevin Alexander, Korea: The First War We Lost (1986), Clay Blair, The Forgotten War (1987); and William Stueck—deal less fully with the issue.

China Crosses the Yalu

S.L.A. Marshall’s The River and the Gauntlet: Defeat of the Eighth Army by the Chinese Communist Forces (1953) is a classic exposition of the retreat of the American-led forces in late 1950, superbly told by a former infantry operations analyst with the Eighth Army. The entry of the Peoples’ Volunteers into North Korea is vividly portrayed by the former British foreign correspondent Russell Spurr in Enter the Dragon (1988). Roy Appleman demonstrates a professional soldier’s respect for the feats of the Chinese forces in his trilogy—South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu (1962), East of Chosin (1987) and Disaster in Korea (1989). And Halberstam, Hastings and Farrar-Hockley provide insightful detail. The best Chinese military account is Zhang, Mao’s Military Romanticism.

The Conduct of the War

Of the many American battlefield histories of the war, the volumes of Appleman’s trilogy are compulsory reading. So are Halberstam, Goulden and Alexander. Clay Blair’s account is sweeping; Hastings is acerbic; and Farrar-Hockley’s official history contains valuable detail, albeit from a British perspective; as does Andrew Salmon’s Scorched Earth, Black Snow (2011). The contemporaneous account by the war correspondent Reginald Thompson in Cry Korea (1954) is moving. And James Schnabel’s Policy and Direction: The First Year (1972) is useful but generally uncritical.

Bombing and Napalm

The chronicle of the bombing campaign as it was increasingly used for urban area bombardments and as a means of influencing the armistice negotiations, is told by Rosemary Foot in The Wrong War (1985) and in A Substitute for Victory: The Politics of Peacemaking at the Korean Armistice Talks (1990), as well as by Callum MacDonald in Korea: The War Before Vietnam (1986). Futrell’s official history The United States Air Force in Korea, 1950–53 (1983) is core reading but avoids controversy. John Gittings’ paper ‘Talks, Bombs and Germs: Another Look at the Korean War’ (1975) is jam-packed with useful information; while Robert Neer’s Napalm (2013) tells the frightening story of napalm with much scholarly detail.

Nuclear Weapons

Roger Dingman’s comprehensive article ‘Atomic Diplomacy during the Korean War’ (1988) is an indispensable resource on this topic. So are Rosemary Foot’s papers ‘Anglo-American Relations in the Korean Crisis: The British Effort to Avert an Expanded War’ (1986) and ‘Nuclear Coercion and the Ending of the Korean Conflict’ (1988). Another valuable contribution is Daniel Calingaert’s article ‘Nuclear Weapons and the Korean War’ (1988).

Biological Warfare

The issue of the use of biological weapons by the US Air Force in Korea is controversial, but no one has investigated it more thoroughly than the Canadian scholars Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman. Their book The United States and Biological Warfare (1998) is meticulous, albeit passionate; as is their 2002 paper ‘Rhetoric and Reality—Reply to Colonel Crane’. The contrary views of Crane in the journal Asian Perspectives and Kathryn Weathersby writing for the Cold War International History Project are important contributions. Readers might also like to consult Germ Gambits (2016) by Amy Smithson, a leading scholar in the general field of biological warfare.

Armistice Negotiations and POWs

The tragic deadlock over the repatriation of prisoners is revealed in painstaking detail in Rosemary Foot’s A Substitute for Victory: The Politics of Peacemaking at the Korean Armistice Talks (1990). Hermes provides a solid reconstruction of the negotiations in his official account Truce Tent and Fighting Front (1988) and Hastings is characteristically trenchant. The plight of the exploited prisoners who were used and abused for propaganda purposes is well told by Charles Young in Name, Rank and Serial Number: Exploiting Korean War POWs at Home and Abroad (2014).

New World Order

Noam Chomsky, Andrew Bacevich and Chalmers Johnson are all well-respected intellectuals who have written extensively about American imperialism, militarism and overreach. Their popular and troubling books are readily obtainable. Simon Winchester provides an entertaining account of Chinese naval ambitions in the Asia-Pacific region in his book Pacific: The Ocean of the Future (2015) and David Vine’s alarming revelations in Base Nation (2015) explain the staggering worldwide reach of the United States military.

Dystopia—North Korea

Few commentators have a deeper understanding of North Korea, its history, motivations, capabilities and intentions than the Russian scholars Andrei Lankov, from Kookmin University, Seoul, and Leonid Petrov, from the Australian National University, and the former East German Rüdiger Frank, now a professor at the University of Vienna. The readily accessible writings of these internationally renowned experts display a positive pragmatism and native insight absent in the mainstream media.

Battle for Maryang San

For those who seek more detail about the Battle of Maryang San, the most authoritative military histories are Volume 2 of O’Neill’s official history, Australia in the Korean War 1950–53: Combat Operations (1985), Bob Breen’s The Battle of Maryang San (1994) and Essex-Clark’s Hassett: Australian Leader (2005). An intriguing insight into a controversial aspect of the British role in that battle is contained in Chapter 9 of Scapegoats: Thirteen Victims of Military Injustice (2013) by Michael Scott.

Film and Television

Easily the best film representation of the Korean War in English is the television documentary Korea: The Unknown War (1988), Thames Television/PBS (six one-hour episodes). The British version is the original, but PBS censored the American version, cutting out footage of the bombing of Pyongyang by the United States Air Force. Richard Lentz’s Korean War Filmography (2003) lists over ninety feature film productions in English. It is a megaguide to the celluloid.

Politics, Controversy and Historiography

A final word must be said about balance and objectivity. Readers should be aware that with a few notable exceptions, most American commentators and historians are sensitive to criticism of their country’s role in the Korean conflict and do not grapple with it. This is exemplified by the respected historian Allan Millett, who once amusingly dismissed certain significant writers—Sir Max Hastings, Rosemary Foot, Callum MacDonald and David Rees—as ‘British revisionists’ who continue ‘the British tradition of special criticism of American policy’. He added that Gavan McCormack ‘gives the anti-US account an Australian twist’. And he treated the minority of critical American writers—Cumings, Halliday, Goulden, Alexander and I.F. Stone—with the same disdain. No doubt his attitude to Halberstam would have been similar if his book had been published at the time of his remarks. The problem is cultural and readers should draw their own conclusions.


International Treaties

Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, 17 June 1925

Not ratified by the US until 10 April 1975, subject to reservation


Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), 8 June 1977

Not ratified by the US



Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons (Protocol III), 10 October 1980

Not ratified by the US until 21 January 2009, subject to reservation


Convention III relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 12 August 1949

Not ratified by the US until 2 August 1955, subject to reservations made on 2 August 1955, 31 December 1974 and 4 March 1975


United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 December 1982

Not ratified by the US, (p. 8)


Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, 26 May 1972

Withdrawal by the US on 13 June 2002


Treaty of Peace with Japan, 8 September 1951

Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, 8 September 1951

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security Between Japan and the United States of America, 19 January 1960


Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of China and Taiwan, 2 December 1954

South Korea

Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea; 1 October 1953


Security Treaty between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America, 1 September 1951



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About Michael Pembroke

This lucid book should be compulsory reading for anyone who wonders how the situation on the Korean peninsula has deteriorated to the point it is today. It demonstrates the truth of the axiom that unless you know the history, you cannot see the future.

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